The influence of the hottest power system reform o

2022-10-18
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The impact of power system reform on power generation enterprises and Countermeasures

in March 2015, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued several opinions on further deepening power system reform (hereinafter referred to as Zhongfa No. 9 document), opening a new round of power system reform. This round of power system reform is a profound adjustment of interests, especially the most profound impact on power generation enterprises. How should power generation enterprises deal with it

the reform of power system has a profound impact on the interests of power generation enterprises

the general idea of this round of power system reform is to "control the middle and open both ends". Since the implementation of the reform plan, with the deepening of the reform process and the expansion of the pilot scope, the "four beams and eight pillars" have taken root, and the reform has a profound impact on the interests of power enterprises, power generation enterprises and power users

control the middle, that is, change the profit model of power enterprises. Power enterprises have charged according to the transmission and distribution electricity price approved by the government instead of taking the price difference between the electricity price and the sales electricity price as the source of income

electricity is like a highway, and electricity enterprises charge tolls. The transmission and distribution electricity price shall be determined by the government according to the principle of "allowable cost + reasonable income". Therefore, after the reform, the profits of electric power enterprises are guaranteed, but what is different from the past is the transformation of their profit model, which should be strictly approved by the government and its unreasonable costs should be eliminated

let go of the two ends, that is, power generation enterprises directly enter the market, directly trade with power users, and determine electricity quantity and price through competition

when the economy has entered the new normal, the growth of social electricity demand has slowed down significantly, and the overall power supply capacity is surplus, under the effect of the market price competition mechanism, the direct transaction price between power generation enterprises and power users naturally tends to decline. Especially in the early stage of the immature market, if the planned power generation is liberalized at a large pace, and the power generation supply entering the market and user demand are seriously unbalanced, the direct trading price of electricity will fall more. The profits of power generation enterprises tend to be marginal profits in the fierce competition, which urges power generation enterprises to strengthen management in an all-round way, reduce costs, improve efficiency, and release reform dividends to the society

power users are the ones who get dividends in this round of power system reform. The dividend comes from the government's clarification and strict verification of the transmission and distribution costs and benefits of power enterprises, and mainly comes from the cost competition between power generation enterprises and the improvement of internalized management

why the interests of power generation enterprises have been profoundly adjusted

first, this round of power system reform is to adhere to the market-oriented, market economy is a competitive economy, in the current power supply capacity is significantly greater than the market demand, the result of competition is the inevitable decline of power prices

in the past few years, China's economy has entered the new normal, and the growth of power demand has slowed down significantly, while the installed capacity of power still maintained rapid growth. From 2013 to 2016, the average annual growth rate of electricity consumption in the whole society was 3.61%, the average annual growth rate of full caliber power generation installed capacity was 9.69%, and the average annual growth rate of coal-fired thermal power units was 6.23%. The growth rate of power supply capacity was much faster than that of social electricity demand. At the same time, the utilization hours of thermal power units decreased from 5012 hours to 4165 hours, with a cumulative decrease of nearly 1000 hours

if the power demand is tight and the market competition mechanism is introduced, the electricity price will rise, which is beneficial to the power generation enterprises. However, in this case, the reform will lead to an increase in the burden of electricity consumption in the whole society, and the reform will face greater resistance and public opinion pressure. The reform may be abandoned halfway, and even cause social and political problems. Some foreign countries have painful lessons in this regard. Therefore, under the current background of overall surplus of power supply capacity, it is the most favorable opportunity and window period to promote the reform of power marketization. For this reason, power generation enterprises bear the pain of reform, in return for the establishment of the market system in the field of electricity and the improvement of the welfare of the whole society

second, the fundamental reason why the current power supply capacity is far greater than the market demand is the result of the long-term implementation of the planning system in the power sector

it has been nearly 40 years since China's reform and opening up in 1978. But today, the planning system is still dominant in the field of power. How much electricity each unit of a power plant generates, how much it sells per kilowatt hour, and who it sells to are not up to you the final say. Isn't this a typical planned economy? In 2016, due to the promotion of power system reform, about 20% of electricity market transactions were realized, and the remaining 80% of electricity was still planned to allocate resources. Therefore, the power system must be resolutely reformed

why does the implementation of the planning system cause the current surplus of power capacity? Because under the planning system, the power generated by each unit is roughly evenly distributed by the government power operation management department, which basically does not consider the energy consumption and efficiency of each unit; The price of electricity per kilowatt hour is determined by the government price department according to the cost pricing method, which basically does not reflect the market supply and demand. In this case, as long as generating electricity per kilowatt hour can be profitable, even if the capacity has been surplus, new power plants and new units will continue to invest in construction. A few years ago, there was a very interesting phenomenon, that is, the annual number of power generation hours continued to decline, but the enthusiasm of local enterprises to invest in the construction of new power plants is still high - because the coal price is very low, power generation will be profitable. This system has caused a serious disconnect between the increase of power supply capacity and market demand

third, to carry out power system reform is to restore the commodity attribute of power and make the market play a decisive role in the allocation of power resources

the goal and direction of power system reform is to establish the power market, realize the direct transaction between power generation enterprises and power users, and independently determine the trading object, electricity quantity and price, which is the real subject of market economy. The reform of power system changes the way of power resource allocation. In the past, it was planned allocation, but now it is market allocation. It does not increase the power supply, nor does it reduce the demand for electricity

why do some people think that the reform of power system makes it more difficult for power generation enterprises? That is because the reform has liberalized power generation plans and electricity prices, and power generation enterprises have to face competition in the market. Under the action of the market competition mechanism, when the power supply exceeds the demand, the electricity price tends from the government pricing level to the market supply and demand equilibrium price level, and the greening of the selection of synthetic raw materials for plastic additives is an important part of its source management. The reform has made the whole society enjoy dividends. If we do not reform and still implement the planned electricity quantity and planned price, the whole society will pay for the excessive investment in electricity

general ideas and suggestions for power generation enterprises

the general ideas for power generation enterprises to deal with the reform of the power system are:

on the one hand, obtain users' electricity in the market

in the fierce market competition, power generation enterprises must change their thinking from "selling electricity at home" to "actively going out to win customers". The target of power generation enterprises has changed from the original only power enterprise to the majority of industrial and commercial users. Power generation enterprises sell electricity directly to users and power selling companies, facing fierce competition from their peers. The countermeasure is that power generation enterprises should establish their own professional power sales companies, one connected to power generation and the other connected to users, so as to stabilize the overall interests of power generation enterprises. Small power generation enterprises can entrust social specialized power sales companies to reduce costs; Or you can directly "go shirtless" and learn "swimming" in the market

on the other hand, we should strengthen our own management, reduce costs and improve market competitiveness

unlike the cost of power enterprises is strictly determined by the government, the cost of power generation enterprises is strictly determined by the market. Fierce competition urges power generation enterprises to reduce costs and occupy the market at a lower cost than other power generation enterprises in order to survive and develop in the market competition. Therefore, power generation enterprises should strengthen all-round management and strictly manage fuel costs, equipment depreciation, labor costs, financial expenses and other aspects

put forward some specific suggestions for power generation enterprises:

change thinking and enhance market awareness

in the past, power generation enterprises sold electricity. Sitting at home, electricity was sold. According to the power generation plan and electricity price determined by the government, it is enough for power enterprises to deal with relevant government departments and power enterprises. After the reform, power generation enterprises should face the market directly, conduct direct transactions with power users, sell electricity in competition with peers, and deal with power trading centers and many power users

now, it's very different

therefore, we must first change our thinking concepts, enhance market awareness, establish customer awareness, take the initiative to go out and participate in market competition. Learn and be familiar with the laws of market economy and power trading rules, study market competition strategies, obtain benefits in competition and realize development

set up their own power sales companies and become bigger and stronger

first, set up power sales companies across the country. In places where the group has many generating units and provinces with large power generation and consumption, they should layout their own power sales companies, set up professional teams and set up special companies. From the situation of some developed countries, the power selling companies that occupy a large share in the power market are often the power selling companies of large power generation enterprises

secondly, improve the ability of power selling companies. The headquarters of the power generation enterprise group should change with time, adjust the innovation organization and establish the power sales management department. Strengthen the unified management and guidance of power selling companies across the country, organize training and experience exchange, and strengthen the interpretation and learning of power reform policies. In this way, the unified management and training of power selling companies are conducive to improving the overall level and practical ability of power selling companies. The power system reform and power market construction in all provinces are not promoted to the same extent, and local power selling companies can also carry out experience exchange and learn from each other

stabilize and reduce fuel costs

China's current central and local large-scale power generation enterprises, the power supply structure is generally dominated by coal-fired power. The cost of coal fuel is the largest part of the cost of thermal power generation, accounting for about 80% of the cost of kwh. We should actively sign long-term agreements with coal enterprises to smooth the risk of market fluctuations in coal prices. The strategic reorganization of coal power enterprises and coal enterprises and the construction of large "coal + thermal power" energy groups can stabilize the sales of coal and the cost of thermal power, realize the complementary advantages of coal and thermal power within a group, and jointly resist market risks. It is also a common international practice to hedge the risk of price fluctuations in the coal market by participating in financial futures hedging in the coal market

comprehensively strengthen refined management

in addition to fuel costs, labor costs, equipment depreciation, and financial expenses account for 10% - 15% of the cost of electricity per kilowatt hour in thermal power enterprises. In this regard, there is also great potential to strengthen management and reduce costs. We should strengthen the energy consumption management of units, eliminate small thermal power units with high energy consumption, or change small thermal power units into heating units. The group's power generation assets are restructured or optimized, and the old power plants are sold. In the case of low power generation hours, power generation rights can be replaced within the group. In the construction of power plants, it is necessary to reduce the purchase cost of equipment, so that the annual depreciation cost can be reduced. To control labor costs, calculate the production efficiency and labor efficiency of each generator unit within the group, and

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