The most magical black and white bar code

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The magical black-and-white bar code

you may not believe it, but if there is no bar code, the entire American economy will not work properly. These black-and-white bar codes can not only make the airport lose your luggage, but also a new generation of double space microcomputer controlled electronic universal experimental machine specially designed for colleges and universities, scientific research institutions and quality supervision and monitoring departments to track all package bases of ups and FedEx, and classify all kinds of letters in the United States postal service (USPS). They can be used not only on assembly lines, pallets and boxes, but also on passports and hospital patient suits. Researchers even put these small bar codes on bees to observe their mating habits

the history of bar code can be traced back to 1948. At that time, Bernard silver, the inventor of this technology, was only a graduate student at Drexel University. He overheard that a local grocery store owner was studying a method to automatically read product information in order to speed up the checkout. So suvo began to study this solution with his friend Norman Joseph woodland

they first thought that they could identify products by using the luminous characteristics of ink under ultraviolet light, but the instability and high cost of ink have become a problem in front of them. Later, after repeated experiments and thinking, they applied for the patent of circular bar code used in the field of automatic food recognition in 1949. Different from the current barcode, the barcode at that time was not composed of lines, but a group of concentric circles, which were read by a photo scanner. It is shaped like an arrow target, and Americans call it bull's eye. Unfortunately, with the technology and economic level of the United States at that time, they were not able to print this code

then, woodland joined IBM paper packaging market, which may have a precipitous decline, and sold his patent to IBM. In 1962, Philco bought this patent from IBM and sold it to RCA at a reasonable price based on the structural principle of a tensile testing machine and a peel force testing machine. The first commercial barcode we know of appeared in 1966, but people soon realized that an industry standard should be formulated for it. In 1966, the National Association of food chains (NAFC) asked manufacturers to develop a device that could speed up the acceptance of goods. Therefore, RCA installed the first bar code scanning system in the Kroger store in Cincinnati in 1967. These bar codes are not directly preprinted on the product package, but pasted by the clerk

in the summer of 1970, Logicon developed the unified food industry code (ugpic) at the request of the national food chain association. Subsequently, the unified coding Association of America established the UPC code system in 1973 and realized the standardization of the code system. UPC code was first tried in grocery retail industry. On June 25th, 1974, marsh supermarket in Ohio installed the first UPC scanner manufactured by NCR (national cash register, the predecessor of IBM). Among the 27 commodities using UPC barcode, the first one scanned by cashier Sharon Buchanan is a 10 Piece pack of Wrigley gum with a price of 69 cents

in 1978, less than 1% of grocery stores in the United States had scanning systems; By the middle of 1981, this figure had risen to 10%, and in 1984 it was 33%. Now, the proportion of grocery stores with scanners has reached more than 90%

the American Railway Association realized the first industrial application of automatic recognition technology in the late 1950s. In 1967, the association began to adopt an optical bar code as a car label, and installed a scanner in October of that year. Seven years later, 95% of the fleet in the United States adopted this label, but for some reasons, the system could not work normally and was eliminated in the late 1970s

The first real industrial application of bar code appeared in 1981. The U.S. Department of defense used code 39 bar code on all products sold to the U.S. military. However, we cannot deny that it is the successful application of retail industry that promoted the early development of bar code technology

ean-13 is a bar code widely used in retail sales because the linearity of sensor elements has reached a high level. It has 13 characters, and the first two or three are country codes, which mainly indicate the country in which the manufacturer is registered (rather than the country of production of the product), followed by 9 or 10 digits (depending on the length of the country code) and a single digit check code. In addition, people can add a 2-digit or 5-digit supplementary barcode as needed

the United States unified coding Commission (the release organization of American retail codes) announced that from January 2005, all retail scanning systems in the United States must be able to identify EAN-13 and standard UPC-A codes, which means that all manufacturers exporting products to the United States and Canada no longer have to make two trademarks for their products

currently, about 8billion bar codes are scanned worldwide every day. A research report from PricewaterhouseCoopers shows that bar codes can save customers, retailers and manufacturers $30billion a year in supermarkets and mass retail alone. It is regrettable that suvo did not see the commercial application of bar codes with his own eyes. He died young at the age of 38 (1962). Norman Joseph woodland was awarded the National Medal of science and technology by then President Bush in 1992

in recent years, with the rapid development of RFID, the status of barcode and scanner has also been shaken. The application of this new technology in product packaging will also bring more business opportunities to printing plants and retailers

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